George Castriot, Surnamed Scanderbeg, King of Albania

28 Jun 1389 1st Battle of Kosovo waged on the "Field of Blackbirds"
3 Nov 1443 Skanderbeg (Gjergj Kastrioti) defects at the battle of the River Morava near Naissus (Nish) in southern Serbia.
28 Nov 1443 Skanderbeg leads the capture of Kruja from its Turkish garrison through intrigue. On raising his standard above the castle, Skanderbeg tells the Albanians, "I have not brought you liberty. I found it here, among you."
1443/1444 Siege of Petrela
1443/1444 Siege of Stelluzi
1443/1444 Siege of Sfetigrad
1 Mar 1444 Council of Lezha - St. Nicholas cathedral. Princes who joined Skanderbeg's revolt:
  • Pal and Nikolla Dukagjini of Dukagjinin

  • Lek Zacaria Altisferi of Dagno near Scutari

  • Peter Spani of Shala and Shoshi in Northern Albania

  • Lek Dushmani of Zadrima in Northwest Albania

  • Gjergj Stresi Balsha of Misia between Kruja and Lezha

  • Andrea Topia of Scuria between Tirane and Durazzo

  • Tanush Topia (newphew of Andrea)

  • Gjergj Araniti Topia Comneni of Canina and Shpata

  • Teodor Korona Muzaka of Berat in Southern Albania

  • Stephan Cernojevic of Zabiak in Montenegro with his sons

  • 29 Jun 1444 Battle at plain of Torvidli. Ali Pasha defeated by Albanian forces led by Skanderbeg.
    11 Nov 1444 Battle of Varna. Skanderbeg unable to reach battle in time to help Hunyadi's forces.
    26 Jan 1445 Skanderbeg's youngest sister, Mamica Kastrioti, marries Muzaka Topia at Muzakiana.
    23 Jul 1448 Battle of the Drin against Venice for control of the city of Dagno.
    14 Aug 1448 Skanderbeg's army defeats the Turks at the First Battle of Oranik (6 miles from Kruja).
    Aug 1448 Skanderbeg raids area around Scutarie.
    17-19 Oct 1448 Skanderbeg denied passage by the Serbian Despot who was father-in-law to Murad II. 2nd Battle of Kosovo lost without Skanderbeg's help.
    Early 1449 Skanderbeg raids Turkish frontiers.
    Jul 1449 Turks under Murad II recapture Sfetigrad.
    20 Sep 1449 Skanderbeg takes up siege of Sfetigrad occuppied by the Turks. Skanderbeg often disguises himself as a shepherd to personally inspect the walls of the city for weaknesses in the Turkish defenses. The city finally falls in late 1449 or early 1450?
    5 Apr 1450 Sebelias Zeurenesse leads a 160,000 man Turkish force into Macedonia. Murad II and his sone, Mohomet, join the army in late April to lead it to Kruja.
    14 May 1450 Turkish army lays siege to Kruja. Skanderbeg remains outside the city harassing the Turks encamped about the city.
    1450 Turks retake Berat in the south.
    Jan 1451 Murad II dies in Adrianople. (Moore indicates that Murad died at Kruja in Aug 1450 but that his death was kept a secret.) His son, Mehmet II, succeeds him.
    Winter 1450-1451 Mehmet sends 12,000 horse under Amesa to approach Modrissa. Skanderbeg attacks in mountains with 3,000 foot and forces surrender of Turks. 7,000 Turks are killed, while the Albanians lose only 30.
    Summer 1451? Battle at Belgrade, Skanderbeg withdraws without the battle being decisive for either side.
    1452? Moisi Dibra defects to the Turks after Belgrade.
    1453 Constantinople falls to the Turks.
    Jul 1455 Affected by the fall of Constantinople, Venice pledges support to Skanderbeg.
    Winter 1452-1453 Skanderbeg defeats Moisi Dibra's forces at Oronichea. Sometime after defeat, Moisi Dibra returns to be reconciled with Skanderbeg.
    1456 Gjergj Stresi Balsha, son of Skanderbeg's sister Jella, sells the frontier fortress of Modrichi to the Turks.
    ?? Hamza Kastrioti (another of Skanderbeg's nephews) defects because he feels he was cheated out of land by the birth of Skanderbeg's son.
    Jul 1456 Skanderbeg leads troops into the mountains in a ruse to covince the Turks he is defeated.
    1456 Amese (another nephew of Skanderbeg) defects.
    7 Sep 1457 (Moore says Jul 1457) Battle of Abulena near the coast where Skanderbeg scatters an 80,000 strong Turkish force and captures his traitorous nephew, Hamza Kastrioti.
    23 Dec 1457 Pope Calixtus II names Skanderbeg, "Captain General of the Holy See."
    Aug 1461 Turks seek peace agreement as a cover for attacking by surprise. Skanderbeg joins forces in Italy to help establish the throne of Ferdinand.
    Jan 1462 Skanderbeg returns from Italy to meet the Turks approaching on the frontier.
    1462 (Moore indicates it was in 1460 and 1461) Skanderbeg defeats 3 Turkish armies in succession:
    1. Sinan Pasha and Hussein beg at Mokrena of Dibra
    2. Yussuf Beg at Prolog of Tetovo
    3. Caradjal Beg at Livad of Ochrida - after which the Turks once again sought peace.
    27 Apr 1463 Mehmed II arrives in Scopia hoping to subdue Bosnia. Princes of Albania vote against Skanderbeg to agree to peace with Turks and the agreement is signed on 27 Apr 1463.
    Nov 1463 Pope Pius II declares a crusade against the Turks and Skanderbeg breaks the peace to obey the call for the crusade opening the war with raids in late November.
    14 Aug 1464 Pope Pius II dies.
    1466 Ballaban Pasha begins work on fort at Elbassan. venice concerned about control of the river trade there and offers help to Skanderbeg.
    1466 Mehmed II arrives at Kruja with 150,000 troops. Again, Skanderbeg leads raids against the Turkish forces outside the castle.
    Late 1466 Skanderbeg travels to Italy and Venice to seek financial aid. On his return, he captures the army of Yonuz Pasha (Ballaban Pasha's brother) as they are in route to reinforce the siege at Kruja. Turkish siege is broken and they seek mercy but only a few escape Skanderbeg's forces.
    17 Jan 1468 Skanderbeg dies from a mysterious fever during conference to discuss capturing the castle at Elbassan. Mehmed II, upon hearing of his death, is said to have said, "At last Europe and Asia belong to me! Poor Christendom. It has lost both its sword and its shield!" Skanderbeg's horse is said to have refused to eat and also died. 10 Years later, invading Turks entered his tomb at St. Nicholas cathedral in Lezha to exhume his bones for good luck amuletes.